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The Bunt That Changed Baseball History

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CJ Kelly is an online sports writer with over six years experience writing about sports history.

Fisk and Armbrister

Fisk and Armbrister

The Bunt as Strategy

The bunt has become a lost art in Major League Baseball. There was a time when it was an essential skill for all players and a necessary weapon in any manager's arsenal. Even the great Mickey Mantle would occasionally lay down a drag bunt to get on base.

The game has drastically changed. Today, the bunt is rarely used in the American League because of the designated hitter rule. Even in the National League, where pitchers still bat, you might see it once a game if lucky. The rise of sabermetrics has led to constant pitching changes, so they never get a chance at the plate. Fundamentals like moving a run over to second base have been forsaken for the chance at a home run. In 2019, strikeouts outnumbered hits. A game of inches is now a contest of launch angles and exit velocity.

Describing the importance of the bunt throughout the game's history to young fans might seem absurd. But during the 1975 World Series between the Cincinnati Reds and the Boston Red Sox, considered one of the greatest of all time, the most controversial play was a bunt. In fact, it changed the entire Series.

Clash of Titans

Coming into 1975, both the Cincinnati Reds and Boston Red Sox were considered to be contenders. However, the Reds were loaded with talent. Four future Hall of Famers now anchored the lineup: catcher Johnny Bench, second baseman Joe Morgan, first baseman Tony Perez, and manager Sparky Anderson. Many were veterans of their previous two World Series in 1970 and '72. They had won the Division three times the past six seasons. Their dominance earned them the nickname "The Big Red Machine." After winning 108 games, they swept the Pirates in the National League Championship Series. With several showings as the runner-up, both players and fans were confident. The overall feeling was that their time had finally come.

Pete Rose

Third baseman Pete Rose had been with the organization since 1963. Rose was not only the most popular player in Cincinnati, but he was also one of the most popular players in the country. Known as “Pistol Pete,” and "Charlie Hustle," he was old school before the term was popular. His head-first slides and all-out style earned him admiration from friend and foe alike. Ultimately, it was this go-for-broke attitude that would lead to his banishment from the game.

The Red Sox Roster

The Red Sox were also a mix of young guns and old-timers, led by a long-time veteran and fan favorite, Carl Yastrzemski. "Yaz" and third baseman Rico Petrocelli were the only players left from their most recent World Series appearance in 1967. Their last World Series victory had been in 1918, and that drought led many fans to give up hope. Being in the same league and then division as the New York Yankees, did not help. But the Yankees were still rebuilding after a lot of lean years. They had not won the American League Pennant since 1964. The Baltimore Orioles and later the Oakland A’s had dominated the American League for ten years.

During the 1974 season, the Sox had an epic collapse in August, blowing a 9-game lead as the Orioles overtook them to win the Division. Injuries to key players stole any chance they had at regaining the lead.

1975 would be different. With the help of the Rookie of the Year and AL MVP Fred Lynn, Left Fielder Jim Rice, and their hard-nosed catcher, Carlton Fisk, they went on to win 95 games. They beat the vaunted A’s in the American League Championship Series with a three-game sweep.

The World Series Begins

The World Series began at Boston’s Fenway Park with the teams splitting the first two games. The Red Sox blew out the Reds 6-0 in the opener, and the Reds came back to squeak out a 3-2 victory the next day. Both were afternoon games, something unheard of today. The last World Series game to be played entirely in daylight was in 1984.

Game 3: The Play

October 14, 1975, was an unusually warm day, reaching nearly 80 degrees. By game time at Cincinnati’s Riverfront Stadium, temperatures still hovered around 60 with the sticky, humid air lingering well into the night. The field’s artificial turf did not help cool things down. Compared to Fenway, Riverfront was cavernous and new, having opened in 1970.

Former National League President Warren Giles threw out the ceremonial first pitch. Curt Gowdy and Tony Kubek worked in the NBC TV broadcast booth. Gowdy had been the Red Sox's regular play-by-play man from 1951 to 1965.

Game 3 became an epic struggle. The teams accounted for 17 hits, including 6 home runs. The Red Sox committed 2 errors (both by Fisk). Seven pitchers made appearances. After a nail-biting 9th inning in which the Red Sox tied the game, they went into extra innings.

Sparky Calls on Armbrister

The Sox failed to score in the top half of the tenth, and Reds centerfielder Cesar Geronimo led off the bottom half of the 10th inning with a base hit. Then up stepped pinch hitter Ed Armbrister, a native of the Bahamas, who within just a few minutes would become the most famous Bahamian in the United States.

Wanting to get Geronimo in scoring position, Anderson called for a sacrifice bunt. Sox relief pitcher Jim Willoboughy threw a fastball on the first pitch as Armbrister squared around. He made contact, and the ball bounced high. Hesitating for just a split second, he finally started to run out of the batter’s box. But then he appeared to freeze. After two steps, he bumped into Fisk.

The ever-aggressive Fisk didn’t hesitate, charging after the ball even while Armbrister seemed to stand still. Fisk began pushing Armbrister out of the way, finally grabbing the ball and hurriedly making a throw to second base. The ball sailed high and into center. Geronimo, who had wisely kept running, made it to third. The speedy Armbrister ended up at second base. The whole play took seven seconds.

"It Was Interference!"

Fisk immediately turned around and began screaming at umpire Larry Barnett, “It was interference!” Manager Darrell Johnson then ran out to argue Fisk’s case and protect his All-Star catcher from being thrown out of the game. Johnson began getting as incensed as Fisk. The 47-year-old skipper glared at Barnett. Gruff by nature, he did not mince words, rhapsodizing on his talents as an umpire.

The Red Sox infield was apoplectic. Reds fans became restless; the crowd stirred. Hisses and boos grew louder. Fisk was at his wit's end, his face a deepening red. After what seemed like an eternity, play resumed. Color analyst Kubek, the former Yankee shortstop, believed it was interference; no doubt about it.


The Reds had runners on second and third with no outs. Now the top of the order came up.

After walking Rose, the Sox changed pitchers again, bringing in left-handed journeyman Roger Moret, a native of Puerto Rico, whose full name was Rogelio Moret. He managed to strike out pinch hitter Merv Rettenmund, but MVP Joe Morgan came up next, hitting a fly ball to center which drove in Geronimo. Game over.

After the game, both Fisk and Johnson were asked about it. They stuck to their belief that it was obvious interference. Fisk was still angry. "Of course he interfered with me," Fisk told reporters. "You all saw it. He stood right under the ball."

Barnett gave his interpretation of the rule after the game. He said interference can only be called if a batter intentionally gets in the way of a fielder. "Each man has an equal right to run and field, respectively, within the baselines," he calmly explained.

Armbrister was equally adamant but still a little tongue in cheek about it. "The ball bounced high, and I just stood there for a moment watching it," Armbrister said. "Then Fisk came up from behind me and bumped me as he took the ball." However, he later modified his story to make himself look better. "As I broke for first base, he hit me in the back and reached over my head for the ball before I could continue on to first base." He added, "I stood there because he hit me in the back and I couldn't move."

Within a few days, it became a matter of life and death for Larry Barnett. He received a letter from a disgruntled fan threatening his family. It was one of many letters both he and the Commissioner would receive about the incident. The FBI was called in for Game 6 at Fenway, and they took up seats just behind third base. Thankfully, the threats came to nothing, and a resounding chorus of boos was all he received from the Red Sox faithful.

The Series Goes On

The Sox came back the next night and won a close game in which the teams combined for 20 hits. Cuban native Luis Tiant, the Red Sox starter, used his classic wind up delivery to even the Series at 2-2. It was a rare complete game. He threw over 160 pitches that night.

The Reds won Game 5 and went back to Boston for the deciding game. More history was made on their return to Boston. Game 6 turned into one of the greatest ever played, a 12-inning struggle that ended with Carlton Fisk’s dramatic home run off the foul pole and his determined urging. Game 7 was a nail-biter too. But the Reds gutted it out for the Big Red Machine’s first World Series Championship. Pete Rose was named MVP, but others made a name for themselves as well. Cesar Geronimo had seven hits with two homers and a triple.

The Reds came back again in ’76, winning the World Series in a four-game sweep of the Yankees. The Red Sox would have to wait 29 more years for another World Series ring. They have since won four more.


It’s hard to point to one incident in a very long series and claim it cost a team the championship. But baseball is a game of inches; its history is peppered with small incidents that meant the difference between victory and defeat in the postseason. Bill Buckner's famous error in Game 6 of the 1986 series is a great example. That error cost them the game. What if he could have bent down another inch? But would he have beaten Mookie Wilson to the bag? Probably not.

We don’t know what would have happened in the 11th inning if Armbrister is called out and the Sox get a double play during the next at-bat. Red Sox hitters were getting hot. They already hit three homers that night. Both teams had already used their aces. A warm night, hot bats, and tired pitching might have made for an interesting 12th inning. The curse of the Bambino could have been stopped sooner and their 57-year drought ended.

Post Game

Major League Baseball was still America’s pastime in the 1970s. Ratings for the Series were phenomenal: an average rating of 28.7 with a 52 share. In other words, more than half the TVs in the country were tuned into the Series. 35.9 million people watched. You can still watch the original broadcast of all seven games, and I highly recommend it: bad suits, long hair, and lots of smoking.

Four of the broadcasters would go on to receive the Ford Frick Award from the Baseball Hall of Fame: Curt Gowdy, Joe Garagiola, Tony Kubek, and Marty Brennaman.

Riverfront Stadium was torn down in 2002, but Fenway still stands, now 105 years old.

The protagonists in this drama went on to continued success:

  • Ed Armbrister retired in 1977 and returned to the Bahamas, where he has had a successful career in both government and business.
  • Carlton Fisk went on to a Hall of Fame career, moving to the White Sox in the 1980s. In his nearly 24 seasons, he was an 11-time All-Star, a gold glove winner, hit 376 home runs along with 2,356 hits. He was one of the few MLBers to play in four decades, having started his career in 1969 and ending it in 1993.
  • Larry Barnett, the home plate umpire, still maintains it was the right call, to the consternation of many in Boston. He continued in the American League for 30 years, retiring in 1999.
  • Darrell Johnson was fired during the 1976 season and went on to manage the expansion Seattle Mariners for three seasons and finished his managerial career after one season with the Texas Rangers. He passed away in 2004.
  • Jim Willoughby played two more seasons for the Sox before signing with the White Sox for his last season in the majors. After that, he played in the Caribbean for a couple of seasons. While in Venezuela, he went into a diabetic coma, but survived. The diabetes had gone undiagnosed for years. Subsequently, he went to California and became a successful builder.

The Armbrister bunt controversy ranks as one of the most famous plays in World Series history. Although it will always rank behind Don Larson’s perfect game, Bill Buckner’s error, and Kirk Gibson’s 1988 walk-off homer, it cannot be denied its place. A little-known outfielder from the Bahamas became famous and broke Boston’s heart.

1975 Happenings

  • The average price of gas was .53/gallon ($2.47 in today’s dollars). New England had the highest prices in the nation.
  • Inflation ran just over 9%.
  • July 1975, Apollo-Soyuz, the first joint U.S.-Soviet space flight
  • Springsteen’s Born to Run debuted on August 25, 1975
  • Saturday Night Live debuted on October 11, 1975. Promos were read by Curt Gowdy during the broadcast.
  • Average MLB salary was $44, 676 with the minimum $16,000.
  • Jimmy Hoffa disappeared on July 30, 1975.
  • The Billboard #1 song in the second week of October was Bad Blood by Neil Sedaka.
  • The #1 Album in the country for the first 2 weeks of October was Pink Floyd's Wish You Were Here and for the last weeks of the month, John Denver's Windsong held the top spot.



  • Adelman, Tom. The Long Ball: The Summer of '75—Spaceman, Catfish, Charlie Hustle, and the Greatest World Series Ever Played. 2003 Boston: Little, Brown.
  • Frost, Mark. Game Six: Cincinnati, Boston, and the 1975 World Series: The Triumph of America's Pastime. 2009. New York: Hyperion

Newspaper and Magazine Articles:

  • Canales, Nick. "The Forgotten Game: Game 7 of '75 World Series leaves many wondering 'what if?' The Sporting News, October 14, 2015.
  • Chass, Murray. "Umpire Gets Death Threat." New York Times, October 21, 1975. New York Times Archives.
  • Verducci, Tom. "Game Changer: How Carlton Fisk's Home Run Altered Baseball and TV." Sports Illustrated, October 21, 2015.
  • "Top Ten Blown Calls in Baseball History.", May 15, 2013.
  • Boston Globe
  • Cincinnati Enquirer

Web Sources

  • Doug Wilson's Baseball Blog (great site for old BB buffs)

© 2017 CJ Kelly


CJ Kelly (author) from the PNW on August 06, 2020:

Thanks, Brent. I feel the same way, always have. It was interference, no doubt. Red Sox win that game, do they win the Series?

Brent Valore on August 06, 2020:

That was THE VERY definition of interference even if he didnt mean to interfere its still interference.

CJ Kelly (author) from the PNW on April 04, 2020:

Thanks, Dan. I agree w/you. It was interference. Incredible series. So many little things that could have gone either way.

Dan on April 04, 2020:

Nice article! That was, without doubt, interference. Once the ball hits the bat, the batter must yield to any fielder attempting to make a play. The fielder has the right of way on a batted ball 100% of the time.

Lawrence Hebb on April 29, 2017:

I'm not really 'up' on Baseball, but enjoyed this hub.

CJ Kelly (author) from the PNW on April 18, 2017:

Hi Mr. Welford. Thx for stopping by.

The bunt is hardly used by everyday players anymore (non-pitchers). I wish it was. For me, it was the little things about baseball that made it interesting: bunts, stealing bases and playing good defense. The "suicide squeeze" is rare today. Data analytics has made it all of that unworthy of our time. Everything is home runs and pitching changes.

Up until the early 90s, it was used pretty regularly to get on base, and even steal home. Many of the most exciting plays in World Series history involved a bunt (1947, 1951, 1972, 1976, 2002, etc.). My point is that major league baseball has lost something of its valued past. The game had a ebb and flow to it, lasting less than three hours. Now some innings last more than 30 minutes.

The hub is really about whether the umpire got the call right. In my opinion, he did not.

John Welford from Barlestone, Leicestershire on April 18, 2017:

Why is the "bunt" seen as something worthy of comment? It strikes me that baseball players could learn a lot from the world of cricket, where batsmen regularly play a huge variety of shots and the idea of playing a slow shot along the ground to where the fielders are not is often a very good one.

CJ Kelly (author) from the PNW on April 07, 2017:

Thanks, Mr. Sacchi. It was a pleasure to write it.

Robert Sacchi on April 07, 2017:

Thank you for the trip down memory lane. You really give an exciting account of that world series.

CJ Kelly (author) from the PNW on April 03, 2017:

Larry, it never gets old hearing from you. Thanks so much for the compliments. These old baseball hubs write themselves. Every time I try to write something else, I get pulled back in. Next up, 1974 World Series. Stay well.

Larry Rankin from Oklahoma on April 03, 2017:

I always really enjoy your looks at sports history.