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In Their Ruin: The 1966 New York Yankees

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Yankee Stadium in the 1960s. Up until the 70s, you could exit through the outfield.

Yankee Stadium in the 1960s. Up until the 70s, you could exit through the outfield.

Good Times, Bad Times

The New York Yankees are one of the most successful sports franchises in history. Since the 1920s, they have been Major League Baseball’s white whale. Their greatest players became cultural icons: Babe Ruth, Lou Gehrig, Joe Dimaggio, Mickey Mantle, Whitey Ford, Roger Maris, Reggie Jackson, and Derek Jeter. Owners, executives and managers were also inducted into the Hall of Fame. The team’s 27 World Series Championships are more than double that of any other organization. But like every great institution, there are down years. 1966 season was one of them. It turned out to be one of the worst of all time: on the field, in the dugout, the front office and even the broadcast booth. The glare of the New York media magnified every problem. It was a season many wanted to forget, but it set the stage for an eventual rebirth of their winning ways.

1966 Team Photo

1966 Team Photo

Long Shadow of Success

Between 1947 and 1964, the Yankees appeared in 15 World Series, winning 11. Expectations rose every year. Pressure on both players and management became overwhelming. At the dawn of the 60s, there was no sign of their success abating. Complacency set in with Mantle, Maris and Ford on the roster. The farm system was put on the backburner, an oversight for which they would pay a high price. Behind the scenes, there was also an ugly aversion to signing African American players. Only one black player, Elston Howard, was on the roster until 1961.

After their loss to the Dodgers in the ’63 Series, manager Ralph Houk was moved upstairs to general manager in order to make room for the recently retired Yogi Berra. He managed to get the limping roster to the World Series once again, only to lose in seven games. In a surprise move, he was fired on October 17. Resentment from Houk, and his mishandling of the pitching staff were supposedly the reasons. Though they denied it later, lots of his former teammates quietly grumbled to reporters off the record about Yogi’s inexperience. Yogi called out guys in front of the team; he felt that was motivation enough for any professional. Words of encouragement were not his forte. But times were changing.

Bait and Switch

October 15, 1964: Yogi Berra congratulating Johnny Keane after Game 7.

October 15, 1964: Yogi Berra congratulating Johnny Keane after Game 7.

October 20, 1964 - Johnny Keane (L) being introduced by new GM, Ralph Houk. The smiles did not last long.

October 20, 1964 - Johnny Keane (L) being introduced by new GM, Ralph Houk. The smiles did not last long.

His replacement, Cardinals manager Johnny Keane, was even more shocking. Keane had heard that the Cards thought about firing him earlier in the season, and felt his job was still in jeopardy. After winning over 300 games with the Cards, he resigned and the Yankees pounced. Reports surfaced later that the Yankees had been speaking to Johnny during the season, sending low level staffers to contact him. The tampering went unpunished.

It was a ridiculous move for both parties. The players were not happy. Yogi was beloved by fans and at least respected by the players. Keane was a devout Catholic, who had studied for the priesthood and that desire for order led to a rigid management style. His playing career had been cut short by a beaning, after which he entered the Cardinals’ minor league system as a coach. Though only 55, he had an elderly appearance, thin and white-haired, with a heavily-lined faced. The years of bus trips, bad food and desert sun had taken their toll.

Keane also wanted to change the way the Yankees traditionally played, turning them from a team reliant on the three-run homer and strong pitching, to a unit that used small ball. The Cardinals had beaten the Yankees by surprise hit and runs, bunts and steals. The frenetic style of play had overwhelmed New York.. However, Keane was now managing a big hitting club with short porches down the left and right field lines. The club was built for the stadium. During spring training in 1965, Keane kept using the term, “executing the play.” The guys were mystified. As righthander Hal Reniff put it, “Even pitchers don’t bunt on this team.”

The new skipper did not help himself by getting off to a bad start. 1965 was a disappointment to say the least. Finishing in sixth place, 25 games behind the Twins. It was the first time in 40 years they did not finish above .500.

Calm through the storm: Elston Howard made history as the first black Yankee.in 1955, spending 13 seasons in New York. He was not a fan of Keane, though he supported him publicly.

Calm through the storm: Elston Howard made history as the first black Yankee.in 1955, spending 13 seasons in New York. He was not a fan of Keane, though he supported him publicly.

Ownership

The team had been owned by CBS since 1964. The network had purchased the team from Dan Topping and Del Webb, who had bought the team in 1945. The new owners kept Topping on to run the team day to day. It was a five-year contract. Topping’s son Dan Jr., was the club’s vice President. He had previously served as assistant general manager. After the disappointing ‘65 season, the company got a little nervous about their investment. They moved one of their executives, Michael Burke, over to run the team as President, after a successful stint in Europe. Burke was a colorful character. A former OSS agent during World War II and later a CIA agent, he ended up working for Ringling Brothers prior to CBS. He was as well connected as anyone could get. Burke, Houk and Topping, along with their Network bosses. would prove a volatile mix.

In The Booth

In the booth:  Front Row L-R: Jerry Coleman and Joe Garagiola. Back row L-R: Red Barber and Phil Rizzuto.

In the booth: Front Row L-R: Jerry Coleman and Joe Garagiola. Back row L-R: Red Barber and Phil Rizzuto.

Voices

The Yankee broadcast team for '66, both on TV and radio, was anchored by the legendary Red Barber, and included three former players, Phil Rizzuto, Jerry Coleman and Joe Garagiola. Barber had been the Brooklyn Dodgers play by play for many years before coming over to the Yankees in 1954. Rizzuto and Coleman had been teammates on many of the Yanks’ World Series teams. Phil had spent his entire playing career with the team, retiring in 1956. Garagiola, a former backup catcher with the Cardinals and Pirates, was also a childhood friend of Yogi Berra. Joe was already doing national broadcasts and had called Cardinals games for eight years after his retirement. Barber was not enamored with ex-players in the booth and would often let them know it while on air. His pent-up disgust with the changes would rear its ugly head at the end of the season.

Horace Clark played 2B, SS & 3B in '66. Though a solid player for 9 seasons, his name would get attached to the team's era of futility. The seasons of '65 through '73 are known as the Horace Clark Years.

Horace Clark played 2B, SS & 3B in '66. Though a solid player for 9 seasons, his name would get attached to the team's era of futility. The seasons of '65 through '73 are known as the Horace Clark Years.

Hope Floats Away

When Spring Training 1966 arrived, there was hope that the team could bounce back. The roster was still filled with veterans leftover from Series past: Besides Mantle and Ford, there was Elston Howard, Clete Boyer, Bobby Richardson, Joe Pepitone and Tom Tresh. Young pitchers like Mel Stottleyre, Jim Bouton and Al Downing anchored the staff. Switch-hitting rookie Roy White looked promising, as did second year players Horace Clarke and Bobby Murcer. Lefthander Fritz Peterson was called up from AA for spring training and he made the team.

Rookie Roy White. His patience and determination to stay a Yankee would be greatly awarded later in his career.

Rookie Roy White. His patience and determination to stay a Yankee would be greatly awarded later in his career.

Beneath this facade, trouble brewed. Most of the veterans were on their last leg. Mickey could barely play 100 games a season anymore. Ford would eventually sent to the bullpen with arm trouble. Maris had hurt his right hand so bad in 1965, there were worries he would not regain full function. Richardson was on the verge of retirement. Injuries had already forced the retirement of longtime shortstop Tony Kubek. Half the roster would soon fall victim to the kind of nagging pains that affect an aging team. Their negligent team doctors did not help either.

The grizzled Keane still had less than a sympathetic ear. Disliked by the fans and criticized by the media, Keane was even less liked by his team. He was tough on the veterans, riding them like rookies. One thing he did not like was some of the players’ “New York” lifestyle. Mantle was still notorious for late night carousing and the young Pepitone was emulating him. Houk and Berra knew how to handle those type of guys. They were retired big leaguers and saw the big picture. But Keane was clueless. His devotion to the game was total; any signs of distraction were sins. Mantle was so miserable during 1965 that he threatened to quit after the season. Bouton said it was like "Billy Graham taking over the Hell's Angels."

Young Arms

Al Downing - The New Jersey native was the first black pitcher in Yankee history. He pitched 200 innings in ’66, going 10-11 with a 3.56 ERA. He struck out 152 while only walking 79.

Al Downing - The New Jersey native was the first black pitcher in Yankee history. He pitched 200 innings in ’66, going 10-11 with a 3.56 ERA. He struck out 152 while only walking 79.

Rookie Fritz Peterson. He got a taste of things to come when his first flight with the team had mechanical problems.

Rookie Fritz Peterson. He got a taste of things to come when his first flight with the team had mechanical problems.

Payroll

Mantle was the highest paid Yankee and still one of the highest paid players in Baseball. Willie Mays made slightly more at $105,000 while Henry Aaron was making $70,000. The average salary in 1966 was just $19,000 with the minimum at $6,000. The Yankee rookies and other younger players made good money for the era, but had trouble getting in the lineup. Even hobbled, guys like Mantle and Maris received the benefit of the doubt on game day.

  • Mickey Mantle $100,000
  • Whitey Ford $60,000
  • Elston Howard $75,000
  • Roger Maris $75,000
  • Bobby Richardson $60,000
  • Clete Boyer $31,500

Pepitone, Tresh and Clarke each made $25,000 and surprisingly, Bobby Murcer was signed for $23,000. After Ford, the next two highest paid starters were Bouton ($27,000) and Stottlemyre ($26,000). Though laughable by today's MLB standards, we have to remember that in 1966, the average family's median income was just over $7,000. However, players frequently received pay cuts in those days as contracts were year to year. Just a slight drop in production could lead to a 2-3% cut the next season.

Rough Beginnings

From day one, it was a disaster. On April 12, they opened up against the Detroit Tigers. It was a chilly day, with highs in the mid-50s. Following the traditional Opening Day ceremonies, Whitey Ford took the mound. In front of 40,000 at Yankee Stadium, he went 8 2/3 innings, giving up 2 runs on six hits only to lose 2-1. Eight Yankees in the lineup had World Series rings, having played in over a dozen Fall Classics. The bats were as cold as the weather, stranding six men on base. In a bad omen, the defense committed two errors. It would be much of the same on the 14th, committing three errors and squandering Stottlemyre’s solid performance. They would get swept by the Tigers and proceed to lose 16 of their first 20 games, which included a seven-game losing streak. A malaise had set in that began turning towards fatalism.

Injuries hit early and hard. Mantle’s hamstring soon went awry. Ford’s once golden arm was constantly sore and he could hardly go five innings. His circulation problem appeared once again and he needed a vein graph in his left arm. New shortstop Ruben Amaro, for whom they had just traded Phil Linz to Philly, was lost that first week in a collision with Tom Tresh. He tore his knee and would be out the rest of the season. It was a devastating blow. Bobby Murcer replaced Amaro at short, but played poorly and was eventually sent down. Keane was lashing out at everyone during his many team meetings. He had lost the team.

Jim Bouton - Won 46 games his first 3 season with the team, but ended up winning only 9 games his last 4 season in New York.

Jim Bouton - Won 46 games his first 3 season with the team, but ended up winning only 9 games his last 4 season in New York.

June 29 - A rare moment. Richardson, Mantle & Pepitone celebrate a win at Fenway Park. Mantle and Pep hit HRs while Richardson went 5 for 5.

June 29 - A rare moment. Richardson, Mantle & Pepitone celebrate a win at Fenway Park. Mantle and Pep hit HRs while Richardson went 5 for 5.

Johnny Be Gone

On May 6, after losing 7-4 to the Angels in Anaheim, Keane was fired and replaced by the man who had hired him, Ralph Houk. Bouton, one of the team’s resident oddballs who would go on to write the now classic Ball Four, liked Keane, but felt he was overwhelmed. The team’s aura and the glare of the City were too much. Even in the 60s, it was a 24 hour a day job with a press corps that became unforgiving. Keane spent 30 years playing and managing in the minor leagues until 1959 and never quite adjusted to the big-league spotlight. The players had been respectful to Johnny, but behind the scenes they questioned his managerial skills and did not always play hard. Mantle would tell the press they let Johnny down.

After getting the news, Keane went down to the locker room to say goodbye to the team, addressing them as a group before heading off to pick up his stuff. While rummaging through the office, one by one the players stopped in to say their own personal goodbyes. Many of them felt a deep sense of regret. It was a weird situation, especially for the long time Yankees. They had not fired a manager mid-season since World War I. Since 1960, the organization had fired three managers, starting with Casey Stengel. The only thing certain about the Yankees now was instability.

Ralph Houk back on the bench.

Ralph Houk back on the bench.

King Ralph

Houk walked into a room and was in command. He had been a backup catcher his entire career, a position lends itself to learning every aspect of the game. Combined with his World War II service in which he survived the Battle of the Bulge, and was awarded the Silver Star, Bronze Star and Purple Heart, he was a natural leader. His nickname “the Major” came from his last rank in the Army. The native Kansan could be both a calming influence and a fiery speechmaker. But he had an existing relationship with the players and this led to the one thing Keane did not have: absolute respect.

It wasn’t a warm welcome from every player. Houk had lowballed some of the guys during salary negotiations in the off-season, and there was lingering resentment. But for now, anything was better than Keane.

Temporary Reprieve

The team responded, winning three in a row and later in the month went on a five-game win streak, winning 18 of their first 27 under Houk. But soon, they fell back to earth, struggling each day for a win. While they avoided very long losing streaks, the losses still piled up. The injury bug continued to spread. Bats slumped while the team became lethargic once again. There would be another 6-game winning streak in July that included a sweep of the Twins in Minnesota and a 4-game streak in August, but that would be it. Trading a win for a couple of losses was the normal pattern. The final two months of the season was an unending struggle to stay out of last place.

Indicative of this sad state of baseball at the House That Ruth Built was an August 19th game against Kansas City. It was a Friday night and the second game of a doubleheader, with just 12,000 in attendance. A confident Petersen took the mound and pitched seven scoreless innings, giving up just five hits until the 8th. Phil Roof led off with a single, but pitcher Lew Krausse failed in his attempt at a sacrifice, as Roof was forced out at second. Bert Campanaris came up and promptly lashed a ground rule double for what would have been runners at second and third. But the umpire ruled that a fan reached out and interfered with the play, which brought Krausse home for the game's first run. Though the Yankees managed to tie it up in the bottom half of the 8th, the A's got another run off Pedro Ramos in the 9th to win the game 2-1.


Sunday, June 19. Jim Bouton facing Al Kaline in the top of the 9th, down 2-1. Kaline smacked a double, though he did not score.  Yanks lost 2-1.

Sunday, June 19. Jim Bouton facing Al Kaline in the top of the 9th, down 2-1. Kaline smacked a double, though he did not score. Yanks lost 2-1.

Crash and Burn

On September 7, the Yanks finally fell back to the cellar with a 3-2 loss to the Orioles. They wasted another complete game by Stottlemyre. Mantle returned from another injury to pinch hit and struck out in the ninth. It was their fifth loss in a row and seventh of their last nine. Disgust now reigned and team discipline began to weaken. Bouton, ever the rebel, broke the unwritten rules by being honest with a reporter. In response to a question by Murray Oldermann about the reasons for the team’s decline, he flatly stated, “We just stink.” It made headlines the next day. Houk called him into the office and asked why he did it. He also told Jim his teammates were angry. He apologized, reluctantly. Being blunt with a reporter is a sin far greater than cheating.

They clawed back to eighth place by sweeping the Red Sox, but on September 18, they fell back to last place permanently.

At Comiskey Park on October 2, Yankees closer Dooley Womack got the White Sox’ Dick Kentworthy to ground out to 3B Mike Ferraro, who tossed it over to Mike Hegan for the final out. Mercifully, the season was over, having only played 159 games due to rainouts. They managed to win their last two games in Chicago, finishing 70-89, 26 ½ games behind the eventual World Champion Baltimore Orioles. They had been shut out 13 times.

Mel Stottlemyre

Mel Stottlemyre

Fallout

As the team sunk, so did attendance. While drawing 1.1 million fans may seem like an extraordinary achievement for a last place team, it was quite a drop from previous seasons. In ’64, they were at 1.3 million and finished with 1.2 million in ’65. At the start of the decade, they were getting over 1.6 million a season. In this era before huge local and national TV revenue, gate receipts were vital to the bottom line. Any drop caused concern, so the 7% drop from the prior season started a near panic. MLB’s total TV revenue for 1966 was nearly $28 million though the average ticket price was still below $3. Like most teams, the Yankees desired more night games and slightly higher ticket prices.

Dan Topping Jr. was out as general manager by October. Michael Burke brought on Lee McPhail as a replacement in the fall of ’66. McPhail, son of former Yankees GM Larry McPhail, had just served a stint in the Commissioner’s office and had a very successful run as Baltimore’s GM prior to that. His primary marching orders were to get younger. The long process of rebuilding the organization had begun. It would take nearly a decade.

in-their-ruin-the-1966-yankees

Red Barber's Farewell

September 22 was a dreary, rainy Thursday. Five inches fell before game time. It had rained so hard that morning that most thought the game was going to be postponed. That’s what Barber was expecting as he drove up to his parking space near the Stadium. His mood mirrored the dark skies. Thursday afternoon games were notorious for their sparse attendance, especially late in the season. The official attendance was listed as 413. By the end of the game, there were but a few, maybe a hundred. It had been a long season for everyone, including Red. Like the players, he was angry and worn out. This manifested itself in one of the most extraordinary commentaries in baseball broadcasting history.

During the broadcast, Red continually asked his director to pan the stands. He felt that was the story: the once great franchise had sunk to the bottom. The director wisely refused. But Red remained obstinate and delivered this final commentary:

“I don’t know what the paid attendance is today, but whatever it is, it is the smallest crowd in the history of Yankee Stadium, and this crowd is the story, not the game.” His dour call of the game continued. We don’t know the reaction of the viewers, but there was only one that counted.

Listening carefully was the Yankee’s newest executive, Michael Burke. He was not pleased. After the season, Burke told Barber over lunch that his contract would not be renewed. It was the end of his regular play by play career.

Despite the turmoil, Joe Pepitone had a great season with his bat and glove.

Despite the turmoil, Joe Pepitone had a great season with his bat and glove.

September 17: Bobby Richardson and his family were honored by the Yankees.

September 17: Bobby Richardson and his family were honored by the Yankees.

Requiem

There were bright spots. Despite committing 142 errors, the Yankee defense ended the season ranked 5th overall in runs allowed The popular, but undisciplined Pepitone smacked 31 homers with 149 hits and an OPS near .800. For a guy known for hard living and idiosyncrasies, he played in 152 games, the most of any Yankee and won the Gold Glove at first base. Beneath his deeply-flawed character was an incredibly skilled player who unfortunately would fall short of his career potential.

Fritz Petersen went on to have the best record of anyone on the staff, going 12-11 with a 3.31 ERA and striking out 96. He appeared in 34 games with the second most innings pitched on the team, 215.

It had been a miserable campaign otherwise. Mel Stottlemyre, who won 20 games in ’65, became the second pitcher in the three years to lose 20 the following season. He had the worst ERA of his career at 3.80, despite striking out 146. Whitey Ford posted a 2-5 record, appearing in only 22 games. Mantle managed to play in 108 games but got just 96 hits and 19 homers. Ford retired after the next season and Mickey held on until 1968.

Bobby Richardson had announced his retirement in early September, and they honored him later in the month with “Bobby Richardson Day.” Despite Bobby’s popularity with the fans, only 21, 000 showed up for the farewell. Another roster stalwart, Clete Boyer, who had a rough year at the plate, was traded to the Atlanta Braves. He bounced back to hit 26 homers and get 140 hits in 1967.

Future Yankee Stars Bobby Murcer and Roy White.

Future Yankee Stars Bobby Murcer and Roy White.

Houk would continue as manager until he quit at the end of the 1973 season. It was an unusual run of immediate success, followed by incredible failure and back to respectability. He would then manage the Tigers and Red Sox. Houk, like Horace Clark and Stottlemyre, became synonymous with the “lean years” of the franchise.

Future star Bobby Murcer, who suffered the indignity of being sent down, eventually found a home in the outfield upon returning to the big leagues. He would lose two more seasons to military service, which probably hurt his career somewhat. He would go onto many respectable seasons with the Yankees, Giants and Cubs. His trade to the Giants in 1975 hurt him greatly, but he remained beloved by the fans. Bobby finished his career back in the Bronx, retiring in 1983. He went on to become a popular broadcaster, before passing away from bran cancer in 2008.

Despite a reputation for being a defensive liability, Horace Clarke won the hearts of all Yankee fans as he led the team through many years of futility. Between 1967 and 1973, he had over 2600 assists at second base, finishing his career with 3,179. Tribute pages are all over the web and his family contributes to a Facebook page called The Horace Clarke Years. Horace passed away in 2020 at the age of 82.

Roy White went on to play 14 years for the club and was a key component on their two championship teams of ’77 and ’78. He is still a very popular figure at fan fests and autograph shows. His steady, easy-going personality made him a fan favorite.

Mel Stottlemyre, who retired after the '74 season, went on to be one of the most successful pitching coaches of the past 50 years, earning 5 World Series rings as a member of the Mets and Yankees coaching staffs. Like Yogi Berra, he was that rare breed who was beloved by both fan bases. Mel passed away from cancer in 2019.

At the end of ’66, Johnny Keane got a job as a scout for the California Angels and was looking forward to starting fresh in the new year. Sadly, it was not to be as he suffered a fatal heart attack in January 1967. He had been undergoing treatment for high blood pressure and chest pains in the previous months. His funeral was held in Houston, where he had lived since his playing days ended. Many of the well-known Cardinals attended and their GM was one of the pall bearers. Bob Gibson said his death affected him as much as anyone he had ever known. Keane treated him with respect, which was the first time that had happened since arriving in the major leagues. The Angels honored him by paying Mrs. Keane the year’s salary Keane would have received as special assignment scout.

The ’66 club would finally be eclipsed by the 1990 team that ended with a 67-95 record. Somehow the ’66 Yanks appear lovable when compared to that era. As time went on, the fans realized it was part of a necessary correction for the club.

Dan Barry of the New York Times, summed up the toughest part of being a Yankee on a losing team:

“They faced two opponents every time they stepped on the field: the American League and the Yankees of the past.”

Sources

Articles

  • Botti, Ed. "The Tale of Joe Pepitone." www.startspreadingthenews.blog. March 13, 2021.
  • Calcaterra, Craig. "Today in baseball history: Johnny Keane’s firing ends years of Yankees chaos." NBC Sports, May 7, 2020. mlb.nbcsports.com.
  • Daley, Arthur. “The Fall Guy.” New York Times, May 10, 1966. ProQuest Historical Newspapers, King County Library System (kcls.org).
  • Friend, Harold. "Johnny Keane Was Not to Blame." Bleacher Report, March 5, 2010. bleacherreport.com.
  • Gola, Hank. “Hey Big Apple fans, think you’re got it bad this season? You’ve got nothing on the disaster of 47 years ago.” New York Daily News, December 29, 2013.
  • Halberstam, David. "Red Barber and the empty Yankee Stadium – September 22, 1966." Awful Announcing, September 22, 2016. awfulannouncing.com.(republished article).
  • “Johnny Keane: A Man of quiet dignity.” Retrosimba, January 21, 2017.
  • “Keane: A Victim of Fate.” New York Times, May 7, 1966. ProQuest Historical Newspapers, King County Library System (kcls.org).
  • Koppett, Leonard. “Yanks Expected to Replace Keane as Manager.” New York Times, May 7, 1966 (Pg. 35). ProQuest Historical Newspapers, King County Library System (kcls.org).
  • Koppett, Leondard. “Yankee Knight to Have His Day.” New York Times, September 11, 1966. (Pg. 251). ProQuest Historical Newspapers, King County Library System (kcls.org).
  • Koppett, Leonard. “Kauai King Takes Derby, with Advocator Second; Yanks Dismiss Keane, Houk Takes Over; Mets Bow: Topping Decides Executive’s Son to be General Manager – Yanks win, 3-1. Yanks Drop Keane; name Houk.” New York Times, May 8, 1966 (S1). ProQuest Historical Newspapers, King County Library System (kcls.org).
  • Koppett, Leonard. “Mantle Suffers Pulled Muscle After Hitting His 475th Homer.” New York Times, May 15, 1966. ProQuest Historical Newspapers, King County Library System (kcls.org).
  • Leggett, William. “A Dying Team Screams For Help.” Sports Illustrated, May 16, 1966. (vault.si.com)
  • McQuiston, John T. "Michael Burke Dies In Ireland; Head of Yankees from '66 To '73. New York Times, February 6, 1987.
  • Millegan, Lloyd. “Yanks Lose, 3-2, and Fall to Cellar.” New York Times, September 8, 1966. ProQuest Historical Newspapers, King County Library System (kcls.org).
  • Sandomir, Richard. "End of the World as the Yankees Knew It. New York Times, March 16, 2013. nytimes.com.
  • “Yanks Name Houk To Replace Keane.” New York Times, May 8, 1966 (pg. 1). ProQuest Historical Newspapers, King County Library System (kcls.org).


Books

  • Bashe, Phillip. Dog Days: The New York Yankees' Fall From Grace & Return To Glory, 1964-1976. Echo Point Books & Media, 1994
  • Bouton, Jim. Ball Four. Turner Publishing Company, 2014 (5th Edition). Originally published in 1970.
  • Peterson, Fritz. Mickey Mantle Is Going To Heaven. Outskirts Press, Inc., 2009.


Websites

  • Baseball Reference
  • Baseball Almanac
  • Bronx Banter Blog
  • Baseball-fever.com
  • Blogspot.com

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