Deep to Right: MLB's First All-Black Outfield

Updated on September 12, 2018
Monte Irvin, Willie Mays and Hank Thompson
Monte Irvin, Willie Mays and Hank Thompson | Source

Making History

On Thursday, October 4, 1951, Major League Baseball broke another barrier. During Game 1 of the World Series at Yankee Stadium between the New York Yankees and the New York Giants, the Giants started three black players in the outfield: Hank Thompson in right, Monte Irvin in left and a rookie by the name of Willie Mays in center. The vaunted Yankees had no black players. It would be another four years before an African American appeared in their lineup.

Between 1947 and 1951, there were more “firsts” in the Major Leagues than one can count, almost all involved race. An all-black starting lineup in a World Series would not happen for another 20 years, but on an unusually warm day in October, the underdog Giants not only beat the Yankees on the field, but off it as well. New York’s other team had made an important statement.

Trailblazers

Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson | Source
Larry Doby, the second African American to play in the Major Leagues.
Larry Doby, the second African American to play in the Major Leagues. | Source

Baseball’s Peculiar Institution

In the 1880s, African Americans were completely banned from both the major leagues and minor league play. Baseball’s apartheid would last for over 60 years; a sad chapter in the history of America’s pastime. But by the 1950s, this had changed, particularly in New York City. With three teams, and lots of money, the pressure to start signing some of the best Negro Leaguers was overwhelming.

Baseball mattered in post-WWII America. It was the country’s biggest sport. If it changed, the nation would change. The NFL barely registered nationwide and the NBA was in its infancy. College football drew huge crowds as well, much bigger than the NFL. But it could not match the power of Major League Baseball. Black players would not be recruited in large numbers by white colleges for at least another decade. Boxing was the only other sport where African Americans could compete equally. Men like Joe Louis, Sugar Ray Robinson and Ezzard Charles helped white America see the black champion as an equal.

Hank Thompson in 1947 when he became the St. Louis Browns' first black player and MLB's third.
Hank Thompson in 1947 when he became the St. Louis Browns' first black player and MLB's third. | Source
Source

Forgotten Pioneer

Negro League player Hank Thompson became the third African American to break the color barrier in 1947 when he started for the St. Louis Browns. Although he was released before the end of the season and spent one final year in the Negro Leagues, a second chance would come.

Thompson, born in Oklahoma City and raised in Dallas, had a troubled childhood. With segregation in full swing, opportunities were few and trouble was easy to find. His abusive dad eventually left the family and his mom had to work 10 hour days just to survive. So the kids were left on their own.

A regular truant, Hank wound up in juvenile detention at 12 and never went back to school. When he wasn’t running with a bad crowd, he played fast pitch softball at church and recreational leagues, impressing everyone with his athleticism. His swing was so fast, he earned the moniker, ‘machine gun.’ A young Ernie Banks used to watch the games growing up and was awed. In a scene right out of a movie, a scout from the Negro Leagues showed up and offered him a contract.

He began his playing career with the Kansas City Monarchs, one of the Negro Leagues most famous franchises. At the end of his first season, he was drafted into the Army as WWII was in full swing. After his discharge in 1946, he returned to the Monarchs.

Unlike Robinson and Doby, Thompson struggled in his first few games with the Browns. Eventually he was released towards the end of the season and returned to the Monarchs. However, teams still respected his skills. He was only 22. While playing for the Monarchs, MLB scouts kept their eye on him. By the beginning of the 1949 season, he had been signed by the Giants to a minor-league contract.

Whenever there was downtime, trouble found Hank. Between seasons he had too much time on his hands and reverted to old habits. One night it nearly cost him his life. In March 1948, while on his way to San Antonio for the Monarchs spring training, he stopped in Dallas to visit his sister. His brother in law took him out for a drink. One of Hank’s old teammates was in the bar and decided to berate the one-time major leaguer for his perceived failure. A knife was pulled. Hank had a gun and shot the man dead. Despite fleeing, he later turned himself into the police. In a rare instance of justice for a black man, the case was dismissed on the grounds of self-defense. But the incident haunted Thompson the rest of his life. For a brief time, it may have been the impetus to succeed in the Majors.


Monte Irvin and Hank in the Giants locker room.
Monte Irvin and Hank in the Giants locker room. | Source
Monte with his family.
Monte with his family. | Source
Source

The Old Man

In 1949, another highly touted Negro League outfielder, 30-year-old Monte Irvin, was signed by the New York Giants and called up as their first black player, beating out Thompson by just a few weeks. Born in Alabama but raised in New Jersey, Irvin’s family was close knit and supported him every step up the baseball ladder. After leaving Lincoln University, a traditionally black college, he signed with the Newark Eagles of the Negro Leagues. He tore up the league just prior to his WWII service, hitting .400 and .396 during his first two seasons.

Both Thompson and Irvin were called up from the farm team in early July. On July 8, 1949, they took the field at Ebbets Field in Brooklyn to make history. Irvin pinch ran late in the game while Thompson played third base. Thompson also became the first African American to play in both leagues.

While their solid play helped keep the Giants respectable, the Dodgers and Phillies dominated the National League. The team needed a superstar; one that would help them get past the loaded Dodgers and into the World Series.

Source
Willie playing stickball in Harlem, 1950s.  I believe this to be St. Nicholas Place, just up the street from the Polo Grounds.
Willie playing stickball in Harlem, 1950s. I believe this to be St. Nicholas Place, just up the street from the Polo Grounds. | Source
Mays with manager Leo Durocher
Mays with manager Leo Durocher | Source

The Legend

Alabama native Willie Howard Mays Jr. was the son a local baseball player. His mother had also been an exceptional dual-sport athlete in high school, a very rare feat for women in the early 20th century. Young Willie showed excellent athletic ability from his earliest days and by high school was a multi-sport star, playing baseball, football and basketball.

While attending the famed Fairfield Industrial High School, Mays quietly began his pro baseball career, playing over the summer of 1947 with the Chattanooga Choo-Choos. He did it again the following summer and into the fall, playing for the Birmingham Black Barons of the Negro Leagues. However, his amateur status was needed to keep playing high school sports, so he returned full time to Fairfield.

Major League scouts remained ever present at all of his remaining games. The Boston Braves, Dodgers and Giants all battled for his attention. The Braves were the early favorite, where he would have been part of an outfield with Hank Aaron. However, it was a last-minute push by the Giants that got him to sign for $4,000. Upon graduation in 1950, Mays reported to the Giants’ minor league affiliate in Trenton, New Jersey. After a good season, he was promoted to AAA in Minneapolis and then in May 1951, he was called up to the big club. Despite missing the first month of the season, he would go on to win the National League Rookie of the Year award. It was the start of a career that would last for 22 years.

In an ironic twist, it was another African American who was sent down to the minors to make room for Mays. Artie Wilson, who became the third African American to play for the Giants, was called up at the beginning of the season. But he struggled at the plate. In May, Duroucher gave him the bad news. Wilson never returned to the Majors.


Willie Mays as a 17 year old playing for the Birmingham Barons.
Willie Mays as a 17 year old playing for the Birmingham Barons. | Source
Mays at the Polo Grounds early 50s.  You can get a sense of the odd shape and antiquated nature of the facility from this angle. The bullpens were actually in fair territory.
Mays at the Polo Grounds early 50s. You can get a sense of the odd shape and antiquated nature of the facility from this angle. The bullpens were actually in fair territory. | Source
Mays and Irvin in a 1951 cigarette ad. They remained close friends throughout their careers, even opening up a liquor store in Brooklyn.
Mays and Irvin in a 1951 cigarette ad. They remained close friends throughout their careers, even opening up a liquor store in Brooklyn. | Source
1951 New York Giants
1951 New York Giants | Source
Aerial shot of the Polo Grounds, early 50s.
Aerial shot of the Polo Grounds, early 50s. | Source
A rare color shot at field level.
A rare color shot at field level. | Source

1951 - The Season

The 1951 season was not just an amazing year for the New York Giants and the growing number of black players throughout the Major Leagues. It would go down as one of the most incredible years in baseball history. Two future superstars, Willie Mays and Mickey Mantle, emerged. A legend, Joe DiMaggio, played his final game. The National League pennant race between the Giants and Dodgers is now considered the greatest of all time.

It had been a remarkable turnaround for the team. Playing in the antiquated Polo Grounds, they had become a forgotten franchise. Lost in the spectacular success of the Yankees and Dodgers, they had not been to a World Series since 1937. That began to change in the late 40s as they began laying the groundwork for what became their first pennant winning season in 14 years.

The Giants came into the season as the favorite along with their perennial rivals, the Dodgers and the previous year's NL Champs, the Phillies. New York had won 86 games the year before and with the anticipated call up of Mays, their fans were daring to dream of a World Series. However, things did not start out well, ending up 12 games back by late July. But then the Giants went on an unprecedented streak, winning 50 of their last 62, ending the season with 98 wins and in a tie with the Dodgers.

Per National League rules, they had to play a best of three-game playoff for the right to go to the World Series. This was a rare occurrence being only the second time in National League history. The first one occurred in 1946 between the Cardinals and Dodgers. In the days before the expanded postseason and television, many fans had never seen a 3-game playoff.

Mays and Irvin had great seasons, with Irvin leading the National League in RBIs. Hank Thompson platooned at third base with another Giant legend, Bobby Thomson, for most of the year. Towards the end of the season, Leo Durocher had the inspired idea of moving Hank to the outfield. Besides his solid fielding, Durocher wanted him to get more at bats. He had only 264 at bats in the regular season with 8 homers. The year before he had 20 and hit .289 in 512 at bats. But they already had a solid right fielder in Don Mueller. Whatever the concerns, they still needed to get by the Dodgers first.

Bobby Thomson swings into history.  The Dodger catcher is Rube Walker, who was playing for the injured Roy Campanella.
Bobby Thomson swings into history. The Dodger catcher is Rube Walker, who was playing for the injured Roy Campanella. | Source
Source

Miracle at Coogan's Bluff

After splitting the first two games, the excitement for Game 3 was at a fever pitch. The game was dominated by the Dodgers and starting pitcher Don Newcombe. Willie Mays had gone 0 -3, Monte Irvin had one hit earlier in the game and Hank Thompson came in to pinch run. As they started the bottom of the 9th, Brooklyn was up 4-1. Things looked bleak.

But the Giants rallied and cut the score to 4-2 with one out. With the struggling Mays on deck, Dodger Manager Chuck Dressen made the still controversial decision to bring in reliever Ralph Branca and pitch to third baseman Bobby Thomson.

Thomson stepped in the batter’s box and into history. He drove the second pitch into the left field stands in what became known as the “shot heard ‘round the world.” Branca has had to relive that for 65 years. However, the two men went on to become great friends and made hundreds of appearances until Thomson's death in 2010.

That final inning also led to Hank Thompson's change of position for the upcoming Series. While sliding into third base, Don Mueller severely sprained his ankle. He was done for the season. Durocher now had his chance to get Hank in the lineup everyday.

Thrill of Victory...

A rarely seen angle: The Giants mob Thomson as a dejected Ralph Branca starts the long walk to the visitors' locker room in center-field. Jackie Robinson stands in shock.
A rarely seen angle: The Giants mob Thomson as a dejected Ralph Branca starts the long walk to the visitors' locker room in center-field. Jackie Robinson stands in shock. | Source
Monte Irvin steals home during Game 1 while Bobby Thomson leaps out of the way.
Monte Irvin steals home during Game 1 while Bobby Thomson leaps out of the way.
Durocher and his World Series outfield.
Durocher and his World Series outfield. | Source

The Series

Despite the euphoria of beating the Dodgers, the Giants now had to face one of the greatest teams ever assembled, the 1951 New York Yankees. This was their third World Series in a row and fourth in five years, having won the last two. They featured five future Hall of Famers on the field (DiMaggio, Mantle, Rizzuto, Mize and Berra) along with two in the dugout: Manager Casey Stengel and bench coach Bill Dickey. Between the two teams, umpires and broadcasters, there were 13 Hall of Famers working the Series. The press box was also filled with legends like Red Smith and Dick Young.

Before a crowd of 70,000, including President Truman's daughter, the Giants beat the Yankees handily in Game 1, 5-1. But they would go on to lose the Series in six games. DiMaggio hit the last homer of his career in Game 4. The Giants lacked power in their lineup, hitting only two homers the whole Series. Monte Irvin rose to the occassion, going 11 for 24, hitting .458. He became only the 27th player in World Series history to get 4 hits in a game, even stealing home in Game 1. Mays and Thompson struggled, going a combined 6 for 36. Thompson did set a record by walking 7 times. He also made a spectacular diving catch to rob Joe DiMaggio of a hit in Game 1.

Regardless of the outcome, permanent change had arrived. The three men would remain with the Giants and play major roles in New York’s next World Series appearance, a four-game sweep of the Cleveland Indians in 1954. It would be the franchise’s last in New York. Mays would make what is arguably the greatest catch in baseball history off Vic Wertz in Game 1. The legend just kept growing. Thompson had a great series, getting a hit in all four games.

1954-The Catch

September 29, 1954 - Mays makes the greatest World Series catch of all time off Cleveland's Vic Wertz.
September 29, 1954 - Mays makes the greatest World Series catch of all time off Cleveland's Vic Wertz. | Source
Source
Back as a San Francisco Giant to play the Mets at the Polo Grounds.
Back as a San Francisco Giant to play the Mets at the Polo Grounds. | Source
Source

The Game Goes On

By the mid-50s, Mays was an established star. He became known as the “Say Hey Kid” and an idol to every black kid in New York City. Even after missing nearly two years due to military service in 1952 and 53, he picked up right where he left off in 1954. Along with Mickey Mantle and the Dodgers’ Duke Snider, he ruled baseball in the city.

He didn’t miss a beat when the Giants moved to San Francisco, finishing his career as one of the greatest players of all time. A lifetime .302 hitter, with 660 home runs and over 1900 RBIs; he stole over 300 bases too. Famous for his basket catches, he won 12 Gold Gloves. Fittingly, he ended his career with the Mets in the early 70s. Hobbled by injuries and diminishing skills, he was still welcomed back to the City. The Mets kept him on the roster for the 1973 World Series and he went 2 for 7. Although he probably should have retired in 1972, he left the game a beloved figure on both coasts.

Monte Irvin became the “old man” by 1955. His game showed it. In the days before weight training and performance enhancing drugs, a player in his mid-30s was usually finished. The Giants sent him down to the minors in 1955, but the Cubs signed him for one last year in 1956. He finished his career with 99 homers, 443 RBIs and batted .293. Just think what he could have done if allowed to have started his MLB career at 20 instead of 30.

He was able to transition into various executive positions for both Major League Baseball and its sponsors. Not only was he elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame, but the Negro Leagues Hall of Fame and the Mexican Professional Baseball Hall of Fame as well. The always smiling Irvin became a fixture at baseball’s big events and remained a fan favorite. He passed away was at the age of 96 in January 2016.

Monte and Willie at the White House being honored by President Barack Obama.
Monte and Willie at the White House being honored by President Barack Obama. | Source

Rock Bottom

Hank Thompson rounds first during the 1954 World Series.
Hank Thompson rounds first during the 1954 World Series. | Source
Hank in prison during the early 60s. He had finally come to grips with his demons.
Hank in prison during the early 60s. He had finally come to grips with his demons. | Source

Permanent Slump

Hank Thompson struggled after baseball. Demons that were present while he played came to the forefront after leaving the game.

During his time with the Giants, his off hours were spent falling prey to the trappings of fame in places like Harlem. There were not a lot of places a black man could go to just be himself. But that famous part of Manhattan, just a few minutes away from the Polo Grounds, provided that outlet. Alcohol, drugs and women became his hobby. While Mays had a mentor in Irvin, Thompson had no one else in his life to show him a better way.

As his career ended, so did his marriage. At the end of 1956, alone and with no job prospects, he became a cab driver; bar-tended as well. But he eventually ended up back in prison. That final stint in the penitentiary changed his life.

In the early 60s, he was convicted of armed robbery and received a 10-year sentence in a Texas penitentiary. Many did not think he would survive this time. He not only survived, he thrived. Something finally changed within him. Acceptance is the first step on the road to recovering from addiction. Hank did just that; accepting responsibility for past problems and setting goals for the future.

Thanks to his change of heart, he was released in 1967 and got a job as a recreation director in Fresno, California. With its close proximity to the Bay Area, Hank began going to see the Giants again and renewed old friendships. The Giants invited him to the 1969 Old Timers game. The future looked bright.

Despite his renewed zest for life, the years of abuse finally took its toll. In September of ’69, Hank suffered a seizure and fell into unconsciousness. He never recovered, dying the next day.

Thankfully, he has not been forgotten by fans and writers alike. A biography was released in 2009, Hank Thompson’s Blues, to great reviews. Due to his association with the 1951 season, he will always be remembered. He was a pioneer of desegregation, who like Robinson and Doby, endured racial epithets hurled at him but persevered. His place in the game is secure.

Times to Remember

The New York Giants moved to San Francisco at the end of the 1957 season. The Dodgers left for Los Angeles at the same time, leaving a void in the hearts of New York’s National League fan base. But those last 10 years were some of the most exciting in history. From 1947 to 1957, a New York team was in the World Series every year except 1948. The Giants were a franchise in decline at the start of the decade but engineered an amazing reversal of fortune. They not only made it to two World Series, but helped change the world for the better. Segregation was ended. Stars were born. People in New York always like to remember Willie, Mickey and The Duke, but they will also never forget Willie, Monte and Hank.

1954 - The Giants head into their clubhouse between games of a doubleheader.
1954 - The Giants head into their clubhouse between games of a doubleheader. | Source
The Polo Grounds in its third incarnation, 1908.  The fans are viewing the game from Coogan's Bluff.
The Polo Grounds in its third incarnation, 1908. The fans are viewing the game from Coogan's Bluff.

Author's Note

The Polo Grounds, located at the northern edge of Manhattan, was home to the New York Giants baseball team from 1883 to 1957. There were four incarnations of the complex, with the last renovation done after a fire in 1911. It hosted dozens of other sports franchises throughout its long history. The AFL’s New York Jets, then known as the Titans, was the last to use the facility in 1963. In 1964, it was demolished to make way for a public housing complex.

Sportswriters often used the term “Coogan’s Bluff” to refer to the stadium because of a ridge overlooking the stadium and the Harlem River. It then descends down into a hollow, which was where the Polo Grounds was built. It’s namesake was a prominent real estate developer of the 1890s and later Borough President, James Coogan.

Bibliography

Books

  • Nowlin, Bill and Rogers, Paul C. III. The Team That Time Forgot: The 1951 New York Giants. Society for American Baseball Research; December 2015.
  • Robinson, Ray, The Home Run Heard ‘Round the World: The Dramatic Story of the 1951 Giants-Dodgers Pennant Race. Dover Baseball 2011.
  • Hamm, Theodore. Hank Thompson’s Blues. Nobody Rocks Press via Amazon Digital Services LLC, 2009.

Articles

  • Dawson, James. “Yankees Solemn and Silent After First Defeat in Series Opener Since ’36.” New York Times, October 5, 1951, Pg. 41. (King County Library System ProQuest Historical Newspapers)
  • Effrat Louis. “Yanks, Giants Open Series Before 70,000 Today.” New York Times, October 4, 1951. Pg. 45. (King County Library System ProQuest Historical Newspapers)

Websites

  • Doug Wilson’s Baseball Blog - http://dougwilsonbaseball.blogspot.com/
  • BaseballReference.com - http://www.baseball-reference.com/
  • National Baseball Hall of Fame
  • http://www.centerfieldmaz.com/
  • Chicago Tribune Archives
  • New York Times Archives (via King County Library System ProQuest)
  • New York Daily News Archives
  • SI.com
  • Dugoutlegends.com
  • 90feetofperfection.com
  • Encyclopedia of Alabama
  • Cbssports.com

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • lions44 profile imageAUTHOR

      CJ Kelly 

      2 years ago from Auburn, WA

      Thanks, Mr. Lokker. I did not know much about Thompson either. But everything and everyone about the old NY Giants (other than Mays and Thomson) seems forgotten. But it is a fascinating period. Stay well.

    • brianlokker profile image

      Brian Lokker 

      2 years ago from Bethesda, Maryland

      Superb article. Thanks for documenting this fascinating part of baseball history in such an engaging way. I learned a lot, especially about Hank Thompson, about whom I knew very little. I look forward to reading more of your articles.

    • lions44 profile imageAUTHOR

      CJ Kelly 

      2 years ago from Auburn, WA

      Hi Mel. Thx very much. I enjoy spreading knowledge. Stay well.

    • Mel Carriere profile image

      Mel Carriere 

      2 years ago from San Diego California

      Great writing and research. I enjoyed this immensely and learned a lot.

    • lions44 profile imageAUTHOR

      CJ Kelly 

      2 years ago from Auburn, WA

      Thx, Larry. A real labor of love. Months of research, but reading old newspaper articles on this era is amazing. On a personal note, my parents were at Game 1 of the World Series. They were newlyweds and lived fairly close. It turned out to be the last game my mother attended (she did not like baseball). :)

    • Larry Rankin profile image

      Larry Rankin 

      2 years ago from Oklahoma

      Very interesting look into baseball history.

      Wonderful read!

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, howtheyplay.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://howtheyplay.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)