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Death in the Boxing Ring

I've spent half a century (yikes) writing for radio and print—mostly print. I hope to be still tapping the keys as I take my last breath.

How Many Boxers Have Died in the Ring?

Between 1890 and 2019, 1,876 boxers died as a direct result of injuries sustained in bouts. Prior to that, there were 266 documented deaths from 1740 to 1889, the era before gloves were introduced and boxers fought bare-knuckled. We know this through the work of Manuel Velazquez and his successors.

Manuel Velazquez's Legacy

Velazquez was born in Tampa, Florida in 1904. In 1938, a friend and retired boxer, Pete (Kid Indian) Nebo, was committed to a mental hospital, judged incompetent because of all the blows to the head he had received in the ring. This prompted Velazquez to start collecting data on boxing injuries. Velazquez died in 1994 and his files came into the hands of Joseph R. Svinth who continued the documentation, but has not updated the information on the web since 2011.

But, the deaths in the ring continue.

Recent Ring Deaths

Italian Christian Daghio became a boxing fatality in November 2018. The 49-year-old was in a World Boxing Council title fight in Thailand when he was knocked down twice in the 12th and final round of the match. He was taken to hospital where he died a couple of days later.

And Patrick Day, 27, died four days after suffering a severe brain injury in October 2019 in Chicago.

 A blow heavy enough to cause a knockout can cause debilitating long and short-term injuries.

A blow heavy enough to cause a knockout can cause debilitating long and short-term injuries.

Boxers Who Died Recently in the Ring

  • Michael Norgrove. In April 2013, Jonathan Brown wrote in The Independent that “Michael Norgrove was known as a crowd-pleasing boxer – his fights were regular ‘all-action humdingers,’ former club mates recall.” Zambian-born Norgrove was known as “The Zambezi Hitman.” In only his sixth professional bout he appeared unwell in the fifth round. The referee stopped the fight but Norgrove died in hospital from a blood clot on the brain.
  • Frankie Leal. Mexican boxer Frankie “The Little Soldier” Leal was carried out of the ring on a stretcher after being knocked out in March 2012. However, he returned to fight again. In October 2013, he was clubbed to the canvas by Raul Hirales in Cabo San Lucas, Mexico. He died a few days later.
  • Davey Browne Jr. In September 2015, Australian Davey Browne Jr. and Carlo Magali of the Philippines pounded each other for 12 rounds in a super-featherweight regional title bout. Thirty seconds from the end of the fight in Sydney, Browne took a crashing blow to the head. An eyewitness said “… he was out cold before he hit the floor. The doctor gave him oxygen and an ambulance was there in seconds.” Browne died four days later from brain trauma.
  • Scott Westgarth. Scott Westgarth was a winner who lost in a big way. In February 2018, the 31-year-old British boxer fought the American Dec Spelman in a light-heavyweight bout. Westgarth was knocked down in the last round but got up and was declared the winner on points. However, he collapsed in the locker room and died shortly thereafter in hospital.

The ultimate aim in boxing is to knock your opponent out by repeatedly and deliberately striking their heads. Until this sport is banned, more young lives will be tragically lost.

— Peter McCabe, of the brain injury association Headway, in The Independent

Boxing Deaths in History

Pankration was a sport in Ancient Greece that was a combination of wrestling and boxing. Apart from biting and gouging eyes any form of weaponless attack was allowed; unless you count fists and feet as weapons.

In 564 BCE, Arrachion of Phigalia defended his Olympic Games title. It was to be his last bout as his curiously unnamed opponent managed to choke him to death. But, before he expired Arrachion dislocated his adversary’s toe causing him to give up at the same moment as the champion died. Arrachion was declared the winner even though he was dead.



Simon Byrne was an Irish prizefighter known as “The Emerald Gem.” In June 1830, he fought the Scottish champion Alexander McKay. In the 47th round of the bare-knuckle contest (yes, that’s right, the 47th round) Byrne felled McKay with a punch to the throat. McKay died later that day.

Three years later, Simon Byrne was matched against James Burke for the title of champion of England. On May 30, 1833 the two men pounded each other for an astonishing three hours and six minutes. Both fighters were completely exhausted and, in the 99th round, Simon Byrne collapsed and could not get up. He clung to life for three days before earning the rare distinction of killing a man in the ring and being killed himself in the ring.

Tom Molineaux, a freed slave, fought in England. He retired in 1815, turned to drink, and died in poverty aged 34.

Tom Molineaux, a freed slave, fought in England. He retired in 1815, turned to drink, and died in poverty aged 34.

Is Boxing Safer Now?

“Boxers die—not as often as they used to, thanks to more stringent safety regulations and medical supervision, and shorter careers, and fewer rounds. But they die nonetheless.” That’s Greg Bishop writing in The New York Times (November 2013).

Using Manuel Velazquez’s research, Bishop notes that “More than 230 boxers died in the 1920s, and 103 died in the 2000s…”

The World Boxing Federation has a set of rules aimed at protecting the health and safety of boxers. Annual medical examinations are a must before professional fighters can get a licence. They are also given a work up prior to and following each fight. If a boxer is knocked out, he may not box or engage in contact training for at least 60 days.

Rules such as these are in place in North America and Europe and still boxers die; the regulations may not be followed closely outside of those jurisdictions.

Roman Simakov Is Killed by a Seemingly Mild Blow in 2011

A Personal Experience

At the private school I attended in England in the 1950s boxing was a compulsory subject.

All boys received instruction in the “manly art of self defence” and had to pair off with someone of roughly the same size in gym class. We were taught to fight by the Marquis of Queensbury rules: no punching below the waist, on the back, or the kidneys; all very gentlemanly and character building. I hated it.

I was selected to fight in the inter-house boxing competition: not because I possessed any pugilistic skills but because I was the only one light enough to qualify for the lowest weight class. My opponent was Billy Marshall. My close friend Billy Marshall. Club-footed Billy Marshall. So, I was supposed to try to pound the crap out of a cripple. Very honourable.

At the end of the first round the referee warned Billy and I that neither of us had scored a point and he wanted to see some aggression unleashed. I must have tapped dear old Billy gently a couple of times because I was declared the winner.

Later, a couple of bigger lads went at it and one was knocked cold and spent three days in hospital. The school finally came to its senses and halted the boxing program; reasoning that having youths bash each other in the head was not a good idea and might have a negative effect on fees collected from parents. It’s a shame the world can’t come to the same conclusion about adults knocking each other senseless.

Bonus Factoids

  • In November 2013, Russian Magomed Abdusalamov took on Mike Perez of Cuba in a bruising heavyweight contest in Madison Square Garden. Abdusalamov was beaten to a pulp but he was still standing at the end of the 10-round fight. A doctor examined him and detected no neurological damage.
  • A couple of hours later, Abdusalamov was in a medically induced coma in the Roosevelt Hospital. Brain surgery followed, there were multiple strokes, and his coma lasted for weeks.
  • Abdusalamov has never regained the ability to walk or speak clearly. In 2017, New York State agreed to pay the crippled boxer and his family $22 million.
  • After the Perez-Abdusalamov brawl, Filip Bondy wrote a plea in The New York Daily News to ban boxing: “The damage was done by a legal pounding inside the ring … James Dolan (President of Madison Square Garden, where the fight was held) must understand that he has been the host to something vicious, cruel, and potentially fatal.
  • “Boxing has seen its time, and thank goodness that primitive era is done.”
  • July 2019 was been a bad month. Within days of each other Russian fighter Maxim Dadashev and Argentine boxer Hugo Santillan died as a result of injuries sustained in the ring. The World Boxing Council tweeted “Rest in Peace, Hugo Santillan.” They were followed into graves by Boris Stanchov of Bulgaria in September and Patrick Day of the United States in October.

The Dangers of Boxing


  • “Death under the Spotlight: The Manuel Velazquez Boxing Fatality Collection.” Joseph R. Svinth, Journal of Combative Sport, October 2011.
  • “An Obsessive Chronicle of Deaths in the Ring.” Eben Pindyck, New Yorker, December 22, 2015
  • “Boxer Towell Dies after Glasgow Bout.” BBC News, October 1, 2016
  • “Deaths in the Pan-Hellenic Games: Arrachion and Creugas.” Robert H. Brophy III, The American Journal of Philology, Autumn 1978.
  • “Reconciling a Sport’s Violent Appeal as a Fighter Lies in a Coma.” Greg Bishop, New York Times, November 20, 2013.
  • Michael Norgrove: Another Death from Boxing Puts the Sport Back in the Dock.” Jonathan Brown, The Independent, April 8, 2013.
  • “Francisco Leal Dies of Brain Injury.” Dan Rafael, ESPN, October 23, 2013.
  • “The General Medical Guidelines for WBF Championship Contests.” Dr. Adam Balogh, World Boxing Federation.
  • “Perez Speaks; Abdusalamov ‘Stable.’ ” Brian Campbell, ESPN, November 4, 2013.
  • “It’s Time for New York to Give up the Fight and Ban Boxing.” Filip Dolan, New York Daily News, November 30, 2013.

© 2016 Rupert Taylor


jacksquat@nonothing.com on May 20, 2020:

if you want to fight, then fight. we are all going to die someday anyway.

jj9 on March 07, 2020:

REFEREE. Is that what they are called in boxing? So, the ref needs to be better trained. Stop a fight sooner. Know the signs of a concussion, ask questions, and stop if the boxer does not pass. Nobody needs to die.

Rupert Taylor (author) from Waterloo, Ontario, Canada on October 04, 2016:

Yes Glenis, but dog and cock fights still take place, so does bullfighting. In some Asian countries boxing matches happen almost without regulation because people are ready to pay money to watch the spectacle.

Glen Rix from UK on October 04, 2016:

I have always felt that boxing is barbaric. We have banned fox hunting and dog fights as cruel pursuits and yet humans are allowed to hurt each other, sometimes fatally - as your statistics demonstrate. Perhaps those who are opposed to boxing should lobby their M.P.s

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